Presentation on theme: "THE FIVE-PARAGRAPH ESSAY Writing on Old Man and the Sea 1."— Presentation transcript:
1 THE FIVE-PARAGRAPH ESSAY Writing on Old Man and the Sea 1
2 To analyze some aspect of a novel, play, etc. To state a thesis – a strong, clear claim about some aspect of the story. To support that thesis with examples and direct quotations. To present your analysis in a logical order. Features of Literary Analysis Essays GOALS 2
3 1. Prewriting -- brainstorming 2. Drafting – organizing your thoughts 3. Revising 4. Editing and Proofreading 5. Writing Your Final Essay Process of Writing an Essay PROCESS 3
4 1. Introduction – states a thesis 2. Body paragraph one – support 1 3. Body paragraph two – support 2 4. Body paragraph three – support 3 5. Conclusion Composing the 5-paragraph essay COMPOSITION 4
5 Diagram of the 5-paragraph essay COMPOSITION 5
6 Your introduction should include the author’s full name and the title of the story, novel, play, etc. Short story titles should be in quotations marks. Titles of novels and plays get underlined instead. Examples: In Ernest Hemingway’s Old Man and the Sea… Old Man and the Sea, one of Ernest Hemingway’s most enduring novels… Include Title and Author INTRODUCTION 6
7 Your introduction paragraph should give enough background about the story so that the reader understands the context for your thesis. Example: Since your thesis will pertain to the concept of Hemingway’s “code hero” you will want to introduce the Old Man as well as the concept of the “code hero.” Give Some Background on Story INTRODUCTION 7
8 A strong thesis statement has several basic features: It focuses on a single main point about a topic. It is neither too broad nor too narrow. It is specific. It is something you can show, explain, or prove by evidence from the text. It is a forceful statement written in confident, firm language. Make a Strong, Clear Claim THESIS 8
9 A thesis statement is not: A simple statement of fact A summary of part of the plot An evaluation of the story (good, bad, etc.) An unsupportable opinion YOU MUST MAKE A CLAIM THAT IS DEBATABLE! What a Thesis Statement Is Not THESIS 9
10 Your THESIS should: be stated in a single sentence include a “method of development” (MOD) be the final sentence in your first paragraph For this assignment, I am giving you a thesis: “In Santiago, the central character of The Old Man and the Sea, Ernest Hemingway has created a hero who personifies honor, courage, and perseverance.” Make a Strong, Clear Claim THESIS 10
11 Each support paragraph: illustrates, explains, or proves your main claim – the thesis. contains and details a particular point that relates to the main claim. includes a topic sentence that supports the thesis statement. Provides examples and quotations from the text. Supporting Your Claim SUPPORTS 11
12 I. Santiago is honorable 1. Example 1 2. Example 2 3. Example 3 I. Santiago is courageous II. Santiago displays perseverance (endurance) Supporting Your Claim SUPPORTS 12
13 This is an excellent way to illustrate your major supports. Get in the habit of using at least one important quotation in each body paragraph. Example: Romeo describes the emotional pain of love: “Is love a tender thing? It is too rough, / Too rude, too bois’trous and it pricks like thorn” (1.4.25-26). Beware: Do not use extensive quotations – keep to short ones. Use Quotations from the Story QUOTATIONS 13
14 Don’t just restate your thesis. An effective conclusion: reminds readers of the main point summarizes and reinforces the support paragraphs provides an insight beyond restating the thesis Add Some Insight to the Conclusion CONCLUSION 14
15 HOW YOU EXPRESS YOUR IDEAS STYLE Style concerns the artful expression of your ideas. Ask yourself: How can I best introduce and develop my topic so that it will interest my readers? 15
16 Avoid using the first person “I” and “we,” “me” and “us”. Avoid: We can clearly see that Santiago is acting courageously. Improved: Santiago is acting courageously. Always Write in the Third Person 3RD PERSON 16
17 Avoid saying, “I feel…” or “I believe…” or “I think…” Just state what you believe in strong, clear language. Avoid: I believe that Hemingway uses Manolin as a foil to Santiago. Improved: Hemingway uses Manolin as a foil to Santiago. Always Write in the Third Person 3RD PERSON 17
18 Avoid the use of second person “you”. Stay in the third person. Avoid: This would lead you to believe Santiago is a courageous as he is honorable. Improved: This incident shows that Santiago is a courageous as he is honorable. Always Write in the Third Person 3RD PERSON 18
19 …when giving background about the story. Avoid writing, “This story is about…” or “My essay will show....” Just relate what you have to say about the story in strong, clear language. Avoid: Old Man and the Sea is a story about an old man who fight a 1,000-pound marlin on the open sea. Improved: In Old Man and the Sea, an old man struggles with a 1,000- pound marlin on the open sea. Just State the Facts LANGUAGE 19
20 …and avoid using colloquial or slang expressions. Avoid: “Santiago has a little problem. How do I put this lightly? He’s not as strong as he used to be.” Avoid: Something is seriously wrong here. Let me clear it up for you. Use Formal Language LANGUAGE 20
21 Use the literary present tense when writing of events in the story – not past tense. Avoid: After Santiago killed the dolphin, he swore he would never again leave port without salt. Correct: After Santiago kills the dolphin, he swears he will never again leave port without salt. Use the Present Tense TENSE 21
22 Again, this is an excellent way to illustrate your major supports. But do not ever use the word “quotation” to introduce a quote. Example: Romeo describes the emotional pain of love: “Is love a tender thing? It is too rough, / Too rude, too bois’trous and it pricks like thorn” (1.4.25-26). Beware: Do not write out a quotation and then write: “This quote is saying that…” Use Quotations from the Story QUOTATIONS 22
23 When you are writing an analytical paper, you should never “editorialize.” In other words you should not make judgments, give advice, or offer opinions. Keep to ANALYSIS and EXPLANATION. Avoid: It’s funny how the sharks give Santiago such a hard time… Avoid: Why does the only pretty girl in the story have to die? Avoid: Something is seriously wrong here… Avoid Editorializing ANALYSIS 23
24 FORMAT 24
25 John Q. Student English 1 – B1 Mr. Rose November 14, 2011 Your Title Goes Here Use a proper heading HEADING 25
26 Your heading should be single-spaced But the essay itself should always be double-spaced. Remember to Double-Space FORMAT 26
27 The title of your essay should: Reflect the content of your essay Include the name (or author) of the text Centered (rather than aligned left) The title of your essay should NOT: Be underlined or have quotation marks Except for those words that are in the title of a book or story. Always Give Your Essay a Title TITLE 27
28 Examples: Old Man and the Sea: Tale of a Hero Hemingway’s Code Hero in Old Man and the Sea Always Give Your Essay a Title TITLE 28
29 Assignment: Old Man essay Underline your thesis statement State your thesis in a single sentence. Your thesis should include a “method of development.” Your introduction should give some background of the story. You must have three major supports – three body paragraphs. You must have a conclusion that does more than restate the thesis. You must include at least one quotation in each body paragraph. You must properly format your essay. You must give your essay a title that reflects the essay. You must use third person and present tense. Essay must be printed out and ready to turn in at the beginning of the class period. 29
What Significance Do the Lions on the Beach Have for the Old Man?
The Old Man and the Sea is a famous novel written by Ernest Hemingway. The book got the author the award of the Noble Prize for literature what made him recognized worldwide. The novel may seem simple at the beginning, though, it tells the story of bravery and heroism (About.com). It includes many symbols like the sea which represents life, the great marlin that symbolizes a challenge and the major character which is a metaphor for an artist who goes one proving his talent and abilities day by day (Pinkmonkey.com). A noticeable symbol of the book is the lions which signify youth, strength, nobility and harmony.
The story is about a fisherman Santiago who has an apprentice named Manolin. The old man has not caught any fish for three months, therefore, he starts his battles in the sea, hoping to catch some desperately. A whole novel is a struggle of Santiago with the sea, sharks who surround his boat and the marlin which the man tries to catch. During three days in the sea Santiago dreams about the lions. Many years before, when the hero was young, he used to sail ships to Africa. It was where he saw the lions. “When I was your age I was before the mast on a square rigged ship that ran to Africa and I have seen lions on the beaches in the evening” (Hemingway, 1952). The character does not dream of people but the places he visited and the world he saw. “He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed of places now and of the lions on the beach” (Hemingway, 1952). The old man feels as if he has more connection with the natural world than with people in his life which is why the lions become a major theme of his dreams (Shmoop). “I wish he’d sleep and I could sleep and dream about the lions, he thought. Why are the lions the main thing that is left?” (Hemingway, 1952).
The animals are remembrances of the Santiago’s youth. His battle in the sea for three days it’s an attempt to prove that he still remains a skilled man as he used to be many years ago. The lions are predators and hunters who attest daily they are the strongest as the old man, fighting with the sharks and the marlin, proves that his strength is not just a memory. Santiago feels comfort, while dreaming of the lions, for they are the connection between that past and present. “He began to dream of the long yellow beach and he saw the first of the lions come down onto it in the early dark and then the other lions came and he rested his chin on the wood of the bows where the ship lay anchored with the evening off-shore breeze and he waited to see if there would be more lions and he was happy” (Hemingway, 1952). In the old man’s dreams the lions play as young cats. They represent youth and possibilities (Pinkmonkey.com). Imagining them, the man is happy as with young Manolin. Santiago enjoys their company as much as he loves being with the boy. “More often than not, the old man dreams of the boy and the lions almost simultaneously” (Pinkmonkey.com). The lions also inspire the old man to fulfill his ambitions. “When the lions appear in their adult majesty, they suggest and signify great strength and nobility and provide Santiago with inspiration, a nobility of purpose” (Pinkmonkey.com). Besides, the lions always appear in Santiago’s memory among nature what symbolizes a harmony of life in the book (Pinkmonkey.com). The old man manages to catch incredibly big marlin, but in the end of the novel Santiago fails because the sharks attack the fish and eat it, leaving him just with the skeleton. However, that does not defeat the old man because he has proved to himself that he is still that strong and courageous fisherman.
All symbols gradually build up the major theme of the book which tells that life is a battle. “In order to gain nobility in life, a person must show bravery, confidence, courage, patience, optimism, and intelligence during the struggle” ( Pinkmonkey.com). The author underlines the idea that it is not an award what is important in life but courage to fight. “Then, even if the prize is lost, the person has won the battle, proving himself capable of retaining grace under pressure, the ultimate test of mankind” (Pinkmonkey.com). The lions are a significant metaphor for a true interior strength of the old man which remains as much great as many years ago, even though the time have passed. Santiago fails to bring the fish to his home, but he reaches his aim. The old man proves he is a fisherman, what becomes the biggest award for his bravery.
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