|Dora Maar au Chat|
|Medium||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||128.3 cm × 95.3 cm (50.5 in × 37.5 in)|
Dora Maar au Chat (Dora Maar with Cat) is a 1941 painting by Pablo Picasso. It depicts Dora Maar, the painter's lover, seated on a chair with a small cat perched on her shoulders. The work is one of the world's most expensive paintings.
The canvas (50 ½ by 37 ½ inches / 128.3 cm by 95.3 cm) was one of many portraits of Dora Maar painted by Pablo Picasso over their nearly decade-long relationship. Picasso fell in love at the age of 55 with the 29-year-old Maar and the couple soon began living together. This painting was made during the year 1941, when the Nazis were occupying France. In the 1940s, the painting was obtained by Chicago collectors Leigh and Mary Block. They sold the painting in 1963 After that, the painting was never shown until the 21st century.
During 2005 and 2006, Dora Maar au Chat, then owned by the Gidwitz family of Chicago, was shown worldwide as part of Sotheby's exhibitions in London, Hong Kong and New York. It came up for sale in an auction of Impressionist/Modern works held at Sotheby's on May 3, 2006 in New York and making it the second-highest price ever paid for a painting at auction. An anonymous Russian [permanent dead link] bidder present at the New York auction won the work with a final bid of US$95,216,000, well exceeding the pre-auction US$50 million estimates.
The identity of the bidder, who spent more than US$100 million in total, and purchased an 1883 Monet seascape and a 1978 Chagall in addition to the Picasso, was a topic of much speculation. Apparently a novice bidder, though possibly acting as an agent for a more well-known collector, the anonymous buyer may have been unknown at the start of the auction even to Sotheby's officials. As of mid-2007, the ownership of the Dora Maar au Chat is still unknown to the general public, although rumors have focused on the Georgian mining magnate and former Prime Minister of Georgia Bidzina (Boris) Ivanishvili, who sold his Moscow bank a week before the auction for $550 m.
Descriptions of painting
Dora Maar au Chat presents the artist's most mysterious and challenging mistress regally posed three-quarter length in a large wooden chair with a small black cat perched behind her in both an amusing and menacing attitude. The faceted planes of her body and richly layered surface of brushstrokes impart a monumental and sculptural quality to this portrait. The painting is also remarkable for its brilliance of colour and the complex and dense patterning of the model's dress. The powerful figure is set in a dramatic, yet simple setting composed of a vertiginously inclined plane of wooden floorboards and shallow interior space that is arranged in a manner reminiscent of Picasso’s earliest manipulations of space in a cubist manner.
Dora Maar au Chat is one of Picasso’s most valued depictions of his lover and artistic companion. Their partnership had been one of intellectual exchange and intense passion—Dora was an artist, spoke Picasso’s native Spanish, and shared his political concerns. She even assisted with the execution of the monumental Guernica and produced the only photo-documentary of the work in progress. She was an intellectual force – a characteristic that both stimulated and challenged Picasso and her influence on him resulted in some of his most powerful and daring portraits of his 75-year career. Among the best of them are the oils completed during the late 1930s and early 1940s, when Picasso’s art resonated with the drama and emotional upheaval of the era and which Dora came to personify. The luminous Dora Maar au Chat was painted in 1941, at the beginning of the Second World War in France.
Maar was one of the most influential figures in Picasso’s life during their relationship and she also became his primary model. By the time he painted the present picture he had incorporated Dora Maar’s image into countless versions of this motif. During the occupation of Paris by the Nazis, and as tension mounted in their relationship, the artist would express his frustration by furiously abstracting her image, often portraying her in tears. While the present portrait might seem a departure from Picasso's more hostile depictions of this model, it may be one of his most brilliant and biting provocations of his Weeping Woman. Picasso once likened Maar’s allure and temperament to that of an “Afghan cat”, and the cat in this picture is laden with significance. In the history of art, the pairing of cats and women was an allusion to feminine wiles and sexual aggression, as exemplified in Manet’s notorious Olympia. It is also interesting to consider that the artist has paid particular attention to the sharp, talon-like nails on the long fingers of his model. In life Maar’s well-manicured hands were one of her most beautiful and distinctive features, and here they have taken on another, more violent characteristic.
In addition to being a rare, three-quarter length portrait of Dora Maar, the present work is also a generous and painterly composition with an extraordinary attention to detail. The artist used an extraordinarily vibrant palette in his rendering of the angles of the chair and the patterning of Maar’s dress. The most embellished and symbolic element of the sitter’s wardrobe in this picture is her hat, Maar’s most famous accessory and signifier of her involvement in the Surrealist movement. Ceremoniously placed atop her head like a crown, it is festooned with colourful plumes and outlined with a band of vibrant red. Larger than life, an impression enhanced by her vibrant body that cannot be confined by the boundaries of the chair, Maar looms in this picture like a pagan goddess seated on her throne.
- ^"Mystery Bidder Spends $95 Million on a Picasso", Carol Vogel, New York Times, May 4, 2006.
- ^"Picasso's 'Dora Maar au Chat' Sells for $95.2 Mln at Sotheby's", Lindsay Pollock and Philip Boroff, Bloomberg.com, May 3, 2006.
- ^"Pablo Picasso Portrait of Dora Maar brings $95,216,000 at Sotheby's", News-Antique.com, May 4, 2006.
- ^"Recognize This Man? The Art World Doesn't", Carol Vogel, New York Times, May 6, 2006.
- ^The Hunt for the Red Collector, Marc Spiegler, New York Magazine, Aug 26, 2006
- ^Previously known as the mystery buyer of the $95m Picasso?, Telegraph, Sept 3 2006.
Inscription: Signed and dated (lower center): 26.10.39 / Picasso; inscribed and dated (verso, in black paint, upper right): Royan / 26.10.39
[Louis Carré, Paris and New York]; [Pierre Colle, Paris]; probably Sidney Janis, New York (possibly by 1946); [Perls Galleries (Klaus G. Perls), New York, by 1965; stock no. 6581]; Mr. and Mrs. Klaus G. Perls, New York (until 1998; their gift to MMA)
New York. Perls Galleries. "Pablo Picasso: Highlights in Retrospect," October 12–November 20, 1965, no. 16.
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux. "La peinture française: Collections américaines," May 13–September 15, 1966, no. 144.
Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum. "Exposition Picasso," October 15–December 4, 1977, no. 49.
Nagoya. Aichi Prefectural Museum of Art. "Exposition Picasso," December 13–26, 1977, no. 49.
Cultural Center of Fukuoka. "Exposition Picasso," January 5–22, 1978, no. 49.
Kyoto. National Museum of Modern Art. "Exposition Picasso," January 28–March 5, 1978, no. 49.
New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective," May 22–September 16, 1980, unnumbered cat. (p. 363).
Düsseldorf. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen. "'... und nicht die leiseste Spur einer Vorschrift'—Positionen unabhängiger Kunst in Europa um 1937," December 4, 1987–January 31, 1988, not in catalogue.
Cologne. Museum Ludwig. "Picasso im Zweiten Weltkrieg, 1939 bis 1945," April 27–June 19, 1988, no. 3.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Picasso and the Weeping Women: The Years of Marie-Thérèse Walter and Dora Maar," June–September 14, 1994, brochure no. 79.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Painters in Paris: 1895–1950," March 8–December 31, 2000, extended to January 14, 2001, unnumbered cat. (p. 113).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Picasso in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," April 27–August 1, 2010, no. 86.
Harriet and Sidney Janis. Picasso: The Recent Years, 1939–1946. Garden City, N. Y., 1946, pl. 75, call it "Seated Woman before a Figured Background" and date it October 1941.
Pierre Cabanne. Le Siècle de Picasso, I: La Jeunesse, le cubisme, le théâtre, l'amour, 1881–1937. Paris, 1975, ill. between pp. 344 and 345.
Richard David Story. "The Tops in Town this Week." New York Magazine (June 20, 1994), p. 33.
J[ason]. E[dward]. K[aufman]. "Perls Adds Gems to the Met." Art Newspaper no. 61 (July–August 1996), p. 14.
"Treasures for Met." Los Angeles Times (May 21, 1996), p. F2.
Viola Herms Drath. "Nobles Geschenk." Handelsblatt (May 24, 1996), p. G04.
Mariel Jardines. The Picasso Project: Picasso's Paintings, Watercolours, Drawings, and Sculpture, A Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue, 1885–1973. Ed. Herschel Chipp Alan Wofsy. Vol. 7, Europe at War, 1939–1940. San Francisco, 1998, p. 65, no. 39-347, ill.