|Seattle Public School System|
|2445 3rd Ave. S., Seattle, Washington 98124|
|Motto||Every student achieving, everyone accountable|
|Grades||Pre-K through 12|
|Established||January 3, 1867|
|Students and staff|
|Mission Statement||Enabling all students to achieve to their potential through quality instructional programs and a shared commitment to continuous improvement.|
Seattle Public Schools is the largest public school district in the state of Washington. The school district serves the entire city of Seattle. As of 2012, 91 schools are operated by the district, which serve at least 47,000 students throughout the city.
The Board of Directors for Seattle Public Schools is an elected body representing seven geographical regions, known as Districts, within the City of Seattle. The length of the term is four years. Board meetings are generally held twice monthly. For the 2015-16 school year, board meetings were scheduled for the first and third Wednesdays of each month, at 4:15 p.m., with some exceptions. Its headquarters are in the John Stanford Center for Educational Excellence.
|Scott Pinkham ||I|
|Rick Burke ||II|
|Jill Geary ||III|
|Sue Peters ||IV||Board Vice President|
|Stephan Blanford ||V|
|Leslie Harris ||VI||Member-at-Large|
|Betty Patu ||VII||Board President|
Like most inner city school systems, the district has had to face its own share of controversy dealing with problems concerning racial tension, student population assignments, and administrative scandal; such incidences include a student boycott in 1966 and using "racial tie-breakers" which led to a 2007 supreme court case.
When the University of Washington was founded as the Territorial University in 1861, its initial class offerings were not at a level that would now be considered those of a college or university. Its first class offering was a primary school (elementary school) taught by Asa Mercer, and for some years it was jointly supervised by the newly formed Seattle School Board its own Board of Regents. It functioned as Seattle's first public school.
In 1867, the public school moved to what was then the County Building on Third Avenue between James and Jefferson, the site of today's Prefontaine Fountain. A year later, the school moved to Yesler's Pavilion (later Yesler's Hall) at present-day First and Cherry. A year later the school moved again to a temporary building (called Bacon's Hall after its first teacher, Carrie Bacon) located at the site of the present King County Court House. In 1870 the first "permanent" school building, the Central School, opened on Third Avenue between Madison and Spring Streets. It originally had two classrooms; a third was built in its attic in 1881.
Meanwhile, in 1873 the two-room North School opened at Third and Pine, and in 1875 the school district had purchased 1.4 acres (5,700 m2) at 6th and Madison, where the Sixth Street School, also known as Eastern School, opened promptly in a temporary building and grew into successively larger and better-built buildings in 1877 and 1883. The latter, an "elegant wooden building" with an imposing "French mansard roof, clock tower, and tall central belfry" superseded the old Central School as well as the North School. From 1884, it was known as the Central School. Classes extended through 12th grade, and the first class graduated from 12th grade in 1886. However the school burned in 1888.
The district had, in this period, started a number of other schools, including the even more imposing Denny School on Battery Street between 5th and 6th Avenues in Belltown, opened 1884. Described as "an architectural jewel... the finest schoolhouse on the West Coast," it was demolished in 1928 as part of the Denny Regrade project. When the Central School burned in 1888, its high school and first grade classes were parcelled out to the Denny School, other classes to the former downtown building of the university, with other classes going to temporary facilities, some of which also burned, in the Great Seattle Fire.
A new brick Central School opened in 1889 at Seventh and Madison, and was repeatedly expanded with annexes and extensions. After a separate high school opened in 1902, the Central School was briefly known in 1903 as the Washington School before returning to its older name. The Central School functioned as an elementary school until 1938, and then until 1949 as the Central Branch of the Edison Technical School. The building was fatally damaged by the 1949 earthquake and razed in 1953; its site is now under Interstate 5.
In 1919 there were 64 grammar schools, six high schools, two parental schools (comparable to today's youth detention centers), a school for the deaf, and nine "special schools... for pupils who do not progress normally in regular classes."
In the early 20th century, Seattle Public Schools were "exemplary" under the leadership (1901–1922) of superintendent Frank B. Cooper and a series of "civic-minded progressives" who served on the Seattle school board.
In 2005, it was revealed that a teacher at Broadview-Thomson Elementary had been serially molesting children at the school for a period spanning several years. The teacher, Laurence E. "Shayne" Hill, had been molesting children for at least four of the twelve years he worked at the school, according to the Seattle Weekly. The article also said that several school officials had known of the inappropriate touching and did nothing to stop it, drawing outrage from concerned parents. Hill is serving his sentence as of 12/02/05 and is facing anywhere from five years to life.
In June 2006, Andrew J. Coulson of the Cato Institute wrote a column in the Seattle Post Intelligencer taking the district to task for a page on "equity and race relations" on its website that indicated, in his words, that "only whites can be racist in America" and which, among other things, stated that "Emphasizing individualism as opposed to a more collective ideology" and that this and preferring a "future time orientation" were forms of "cultural racism." The page was removed from the site the same day.
In June 2007, the United States Supreme Court decided the case of Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, where they rejected Seattle Public Schools longstanding use of "racial tie-breakers" in assigning students to schools. The decision prohibited assigning students to public schools solely for the purpose of achieving racial integration and declined to recognize racial balancing as a compelling state interest. In a fragmented opinion delivered by Chief JusticeJohn Roberts, five justices held that the School Boards did not present any "compelling state interest" that would justify the assignment of school seats on the basis of race. Chief Justice Roberts wrote that "the way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race." Associate JusticeAnthony Kennedy filed a concurrence that presented a more narrow interpretation, stating that schools may use "race conscious" means to achieve diversity in schools but that the schools at issue in this case did not use a sufficient narrow tailoring of their plans to sustain their goals. Four justices dissented from the Court's conclusions.
In January 2013, the entire teaching body of Garfield High School refused to administer the standardized Measures of Academic Progress, or MAP, which is administered system-wide, three times per year. The teachers called the tests useless and a waste of instructional time. The American Federation of Teachers has endorsed the school's boycott of the tests. Garfield's boycott of the test quickly expanded to other Seattle schools and drew national attention. In May 2013 Superintendent Jose Banda announced that the Seattle School District will no longer require MAP tests at city high schools.
Several former Seattle Public Schools buildings are on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP):
Main article: List of schools of the Seattle School District
Elementary Schools, Grades K–5
- Arbor Heights
- Daniel Bagley
- Beacon Hill International
- Frantz Coe
- Cascadia (Highly Capable Cohort Elementary Site)
- Cedar Park
- Concord International
- B.F. Day
- Dearborn Park International
- Decatur (Highly Capable Cohort Elementary Site)
- Fairmount Park (Optional Highly Capable Cohort Site)
- Bailey Gatzert
- Graham HIll
- Genesee Hill
- Green Lake
- John Hay
- Highland Park
- K-5 STEM at Boren
- Loyal Heights
- Thurgood Marshall (Highly Capable Cohort Elementary Site)
- Martin Luther King Jr.
- McDonald International
- John Muir
- North Beach
- Olympic Hills
- Olympic View
- Queen Anne
- John Rogers
- Rainier View
- Sand Point
- John Stanford International
- Thornton Creek
- Van Asselt
- View Ridge
- West Seattle
- West Woodland
- Wing Luke
Grades K–8 Schools
- Hazel Wolf
- Cascade Parent Partnership Program
- Catharine Blaine
- Licton Springs
- Salmon Bay
- South Shore
- TOPS (The Option Program at Seward)
Middle Schools, Grades 6–8
- Denny International
- Eagle Staff (Highly Capable Cohort Site)
- Eckstein (Self-Contained Spectrum Program Offered)
- Hamilton International (Self-Contained Spectrum Offered and Highly Capable Cohort Site)
- Aki Kurose
- Jane Addams (Highly Capable Cohort Site with Blended Spectrum Program)
- Madison (Highly Capable Cohort Site with Blended Spectrum Program)
- Washington (Highly Capable Cohort Site)
High Schools, Grades 9–12
As of 2016, the enrollment figures for the district are:
Total students: 45,581
White: 24,108 (45.6%)
Asian: 8,376 (15.8%)
Black: 8,649 (16.4%)
Hispanic: 6,578 (12.4%)
American Indian: 389 (0.7%) Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: 253 (0.5%) Two or more races: 4,512 (8.5%)
Male: 27,214 (51.5%)
Female: 25,651 (48.5%)
As of May 2007, 40.5% of students are on free or reduced price meal programs.
- ^Hazard, Joseph T., Early History of the Seattle Public Schools, Seattle Retired Teachers Association, 1955. Accessed online 2008-06-02.
- ^Seattle Public Schools, FY 2015-16 Operating Budget, Seattle Public Schools, September 09, 2015. Accessed online 2015-02-21.
- ^ abSeattle Public Schools, SPS District Vision, Mission and Core Beliefs, Seattle Public Schools, date unknown. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
- ^ abcWashington State Office of the Superintendent for Public Instruction, Total Enrollment Gender & Ethnicity Report, Washington State OSPI, January 25, 2008. Accessed online 30 May 2008.
- ^ abWashington State Office of the Superintendent for Public Instruction, Washington State Report Card 2007-08, Washington State OSPI, August 26, 2008. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
- ^"School Board Meeting Dates". Seattle Public Schools. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
- ^"Map and Driving Directions." Seattle Public Schools. Accessed online 2016-05-16. "Seattle Public Schools John Stanford Center for Educational Excellence 2445 3rd Avenue South Seattle, WA 98134"
- ^"School Board". Seattle Public Schools. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
- ^ ab(Thompson & Marr 2002): University; archived 3 June 2009.
- ^(Thompson & Marr 2002): Central I; archived 3 June 2009.
- ^(Thompson & Marr 2002): North; archived 3 June 2009.
- ^ abcd(Thompson & Marr 2002): Central II; archived 3 June 2009.
- ^(Thompson & Marr 2002): Denny; archived 3 June 2009.
- ^Fleming, S. E. (1919), Civics (supplement): Seattle King County, Seattle: Seattle Public Schools. p. 41.
- ^Digest of pages 283-295 of Polk's Seattle City Directory 1919, accessed online 9 December 2007. This is the source for there being 9 special schools.
- ^ abBryce E. Nelson, quoted by Richard C. Berner, Seattle 1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration, Charles Press (1991), ISBN 0-9629889-0-1, p. 77.
- ^Andrew J. Coulson, Planning ahead is considered racist?, Seattle Post Intelligencer, June 1, 2006. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
- ^Equity and Race Relations: Definitions of Racism, Seattle Public Schools, archived June 22, 2006 on the Internet Archive.
- ^Debera Carlton Harrell, School district pulls Web site after examples of racism spark controversy, June 2, 2006. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
- ^High court rejects JCPS student assignment plan, Associated Press, July 5, 2007, on site of WAVE 3 TV, Louisville, Kentucky. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
- ^Linda Shaw, U.S. Supreme Court rejects Seattle's racial criteria, Seattle Times, June 29, 2007. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
- ^Ann Dornfield, "Seattle High School's Teachers Toss District's Test," "GPB News," January 17, 2013 http://www.gpb.org/news/2013/01/17/seattle-high-schools-teachers-toss-districts-test
- ^"Seattle Public Schools". Washington State Report Card. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
Seattle public elementary schools
Many Seattle elementary schools are doing away with homework this fall, citing a growing body of evidence that take-home assignments tend not to help elementary and middle school students.
Seven-year-old Rilo is a first-grader at Whittier Elementary in Ballard, where the school year began with an announcement from the principal that the teachers had voted to do away with nearly all homework.
Rilo says she actually enjoyed the math packets she took home from kindergarten last year, "mostly pluses and equals," so she greeted the news with ambivalence. "I was sad because I wanted to do it still, but I was excited because I’d have more time to play," Rilo said.
On a recent afternoon, Rilo was playing in the kitchen with ingredients that she'd mixed into an improvised pancake batter that she planned to bake, as mom Sascha Demerjian looked on. Demerjian said she was delighted by the school's new homework policy.
"Anything that can allow us to have a less-busy life, I will happily receive," Demerjian said. "I don’t know that [homework] was doing anything particularly useful for her." Instead, Demerjian said, most of her kids’ assignments were usually busywork – it was fun for them, but mostly because it was easy.
Therein lies the homework paradox, said Whittier Principal Melissa Schweitzer. "The kids who love to do homework will always do it, and the kids who don’t are always going to struggle with it."
Over the summer, Schweitzer said, a special education teacher at her school proposed the new policy after reading the research about homework in the early grades, and hearing from parents about how much conflict homework created at home.
For other families, Schweitzer said, the battles may not arise – but not necessarily because the homework is working.
“Homework is just another equity issue for kids. Kids who have parents at home who can help them and do that time management and sit through that worksheet, they can do that," Schweitzer said.
"But there are a lot of families who don’t have that ability. Either English isn’t their first language. Or they’re working late and they’re just not available to do that."
Schweitzer loved the idea of jettisoning homework, and so did her teachers when they discussed it at a staff meeting. The teachers debated whether to limit the homework to just certain types, or grade levels, but eventually, they decided it was all-or-nothing.
Then they voted.
"I’ve been here for five years and it was the first time we’ve unanimously voted on something," Schweitzer said.
The no-homework trend is hot right now across the country, with recent research showing that most homework doesn’t really help kids until high school. An elementary school teacher in Texas sent a letter home in August telling parents she was kicking homework to the curb. It went viral.
Pretty soon, elementary schools across Seattle were announcing that they are doing away with most or all homework this year. Some schools still require that students read for 30 minutes a night, or that students bring home work they haven’t finished in class.
Schools in wealthier, primarily white neighborhoods appear more likely to have no-homework policies – or to make fewer exceptions. In schools that haven't developed a blanket homework policy, many teachers have done away with homework on their own.
Still, some parents see homework as vital, even in elementary school.
Kate Kochergina said her kids have homework from elementary school, as well as language assignments from their weekend Russian school. Still, she said, their homework load is nothing compared to what she had to do every night growing up in Russia.
"We had literature which we were supposed to read, a poem which we were supposed to memorize, Russian, science, and math," Kochergina said.
Although Kochergina said she doesn’t want homework to take up her kids’ entire evening, she said some teachers don’t give kids nearly enough homework.
"In the future, in high school or in college, they need to learn by themselves," Kochergina said. "I think it’s good to start early to get that as a habit for a child. It’s like a chore in the house."
Schweitzer said that was one of the concerns Whittier teachers voiced before they got rid of homework. They’ve also heard worries from parents about their kids not developing study habits. But Schweitzer said there are other ways to help kids transition to middle school.
"Let them be kids while they still are. Those responsibilities will come," Schweitzer said. "We are giving the sixth-grade teachers a much greater gift of a strong foundation of knowledge and a love of learning so that the rest will happen as it should."
Because many parents value homework as a means of keeping tabs on what their children are learning, Schweitzer said teachers decided to reallocate some of the time they put into homework into communicating with parents about what their kids are doing in school.
Overall, parents appear to be welcoming schools' no-homework policies with open arms.
Sascha Demerjian said it’s been great for her family.
"We expect a lot of our kids," she said. "They could end up with very busy lives. The one thing kids really need is unstructured play time to explore, and learn about themselves, and problem-solve, and that’s one more nudge in that direction."
Besides, she said, even an afternoon spent whipping up mystery batter in the kitchen can have some surprise math and science lessons baked in.