Journal Bibliography Harvard Style Of Writing

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.

 

Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.

 

Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.

 

Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.

 

How do I use Harvard?

 

 

  1. In-text citations are made like this

 

Paraphrasing and in-text citations

Example
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 

 

Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).

 

Direct quotes and in-text citations 

Examples:
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
or
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’

 

 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.

 

Block quotes and in-text citations

Example:

Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.

 

  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).


Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].


How to Write a Bibliography (Harvard Style)
Books
Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of publication,
  • titleof book (italics or underlined),
  • edition (if applicable),
  • publisher,
  • place of publication (place and state, if not a capital city).
Click here to see examples
 Encyclopedia - Print
Order and punctuation of details: 
  • 'title of article' (single quotation marks),
  • title of encyclopedia (italics or underlined)
  • year of publication,
  • publisher,
  • place of publication (place and state, if not a capital city),
  • volume number,
  • page number/s.
Click here to see examples
 Encyclopedia - Online
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • 'title of article' (single quotation marks),
  • title of encyclopedia (italics or underlined)
  • year of publication,
  • date it was viewed,
  • <URL>.
Click here to see examples
 
Magazine/Journal article - Print
  Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of publication,
  • 'title of article' (in single quotation marks),
  • title of magazine (italics or underlined),
  • volume number (if applicable),
  • issue number (if applicable),
  • page number(s).
Click here to see examples
Magazine/Journal article - Online
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of publication
  • 'title of article' (in single quotation marks),
  • title of magazine (italics or underlined),
  • volume number (if applicable),
  • issue number (if applicable),
  • page number/s (if applicable).
Click here for example
Newspaper article
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of publication,
  • 'title of article' (in single quotation marks),
  • newspaper name (italics),
  • date,
  • page number/s.
Click here to see example
 
Newspaper article - Online 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of publication,
  • 'title of article' (in single quotation marks),
  • newspaper name (italics),
  • date,
  • page number/s.
Click here to see example
Pamphlet (booklet to 40 pages)
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • title of pamphlet (italics or underlined)
  • year of publication,
  • publisher,
  • place of publication (place and state, if not a capital city) .
Click here to see example
Internet
Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author/editor (if identified) (surname, initials)
  • last update (if identified),
  • title of article (italics or underlined),
  • name of sponsor,
  • date it was viewed,
  • <URL.>.
Click here to see example
 
CD Roms
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • 'title of article' (in single quotation marks)
  • year of publication,
  • title of CD Rom (italics or underlined)
  • CD ROM,
  • publisher,
  • place of publication (place and state, if not a capital city).
Click here to see example
Video and television recording
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • title of video (italics or underlined)
  • date of recording,
  • format
  • publisher,
  • place of publication (place and state, if not a capital city).
Click here to see example
Email
 Order and punctuation of details: 
  • author (surname, initials)
  • year of communication,
  • email,
  • date it was viewed,
  • sender's email address.
Personal communications, including email and letters, are not usually included in a bibliography but are quoted in your assignment. If your teacher asks for inclusion in your bibliography, follow the example.

Click here to see example
 
References:
Referencing using the Harvard author-date system 2003, University of South Australia, viewed 1 March 2008,
<http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvard-referencing.pdf>

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