Reference And Bibliography Harvard Style Format

This page provides information from the NTNU University Library to help you when you need to use the Harvard style.

Norsk versjon: Bruke referansestilen Harvard

See also "Academic Writing" and Using and citing sources


The Harvard style #

Are you writing a paper for which you need help on using the Harvard style?

The Harvard style is used in the social sciences, technology and natural sciences. Check which reference style your department recommends before you begin writing your paper.

Other styles

  • APA style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
  • Chicago style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
  • Vancouver style is used in medicine and natural science, and sometimes in technology.

Examples of using the Harvard style in a reference list #

Harvard-Examples

The examples show how to write references in-text and in reference lists based on what kind of source you are citing.

Harvard style in English for EndNote #

If you are using EndNote to manage your references, the default Harvard style in EndNote has author names in uppercase (e.g. ARMSTRONG). The NTNU University Library has made its own English NTNU Harvard style in lowercase (e.g. Armstrong).

Download the NTNU Harvard style

Reference list in Harvard style #

When writing a reference list in Harvard style:

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author’s surname
  • Sort the Swedish letters ä - ö - å like you sort the Norwegian letters æ - ø - å
  • Start the reference list on a new page. Use “Reference list” or “Literature list” as the heading.
  • Include the edition if it is specified in the publication. You need not add the date of printing if this is just a reprint of the current edition. If it is the first edition, do not write the edition.
  • If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.

Personal communication in Harvard style #

In the Harvard style, personal communication should not be included in the reference list, if the information cannot be gathered again. Personal communications are conversations, e-mails, phone calls, etc. Remember to ask approval from the partner of the conversation before citing him/her. You

can cite personal communication in the text. You should include the name and title of your conversation partner, the date of communication and the context in which the communication took place.

The Harvard style in-text #

When using the Harvard style in-text, you must remember:

  • If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.
  • Multiple publications by the same author published the same year are distinguished by a, b, c etc. after the year: Hansen (1988a) and Hansen (1988b).
  • Multiple publications by different authors are sorted alphabetically by author’s surname. Example: (Hansen, 1988a; Olsen, 2001)
  • When a work has no identifiable author, use the title. Example: (Et enklere og mer rettferdig inntektssystem, 1996)
  • When a work has no identifiable release date, use no date. Example: (Trondheim kunstmuseum, no date). 
  • When using secondary sources, name your source and cite the secondary reference. Example: Johnson and Peters’ studies (1970, as cited in Wagner 1982)…
  • Use page numbers when:
    • it is a direct quote
    • if you use ideas from a specific page/specific pages in a work

References #

Example: Researchers such as Warwick (1992), Taylor and Smith (1994) and King et al. (1997) found that…

Citations #

Direct citations shorter than 2-3 lines are integrated in the text and are clearly marked with quotes. Citations longer than 2-3 lines should be in a separate indented paragraph, without quotes.

Examples:

  • Short citation: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenheng sitatet brukes i” (Stene, 1999, p. 125).
  • The name of the author is integrated in the paragraph: Stene (1999, p. 125) defines citation as: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenhengen sitatet brukes i”.
  • Source with many authors: “Ved direkte sitater skal henvisningen gi informasjon om forfatter, årstall og sidetall” (Furseth and Everett, 1997, p. 141).

Indirect citation - paraphrases #

A paraphrase is a reformulation of the original text.

Example: Furseth and Everett (1997) maintain that the primary reason behind the use of references and bibliographies is the ideal of research as a collective endeavour. Research should be verifiable, and those reading your work should be able to find those sources your material is based upon.

More on the Harvard style #

There is no official manual for the Harvard style. Information on how you write references in-text and in a reference list with the Harvard style is based on Pears and Shields (2016).

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th ed. London: Palgrave.

Contact #

 

Both Reference Lists and Bibliographies are placed at the end of your essay, assignment or thesis (unless your lecturer has specified differently, which may be the case for theses). Citations (references) are then arranged alphabetically by author or responsible organisation, or where no author is given, by title. (If the first word is a definite/indefinite article it should be ignored, e.g. The Story of Art should be filed alphabetically under Story). Citations by the same author are then arranged chronologically, with the most recent first.

It is important you consult with your lecturer or Course Notes to determine whether a Reference List or Bibliography is required. 

 

Reference List (Example)

About Jenny Holzer 2011, dvd, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.

Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 4 October.

Art Farmer 1978, Art, sound recording, Cadet Records, Chicago, Ill.

Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011, motion picture, British Film Institute, London.

Colli, MG 2009, Bilbao_6 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/52355315@N08/5757476385/>.

Di Trocchio, P 2011, Manstyle : men + fashion, exhibition catalogue, 11 March-27 November, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Vic.

Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Fujimoto, Tetsuo 1998, Work 98-1, Fibre art : Hemp cloth, polyester threads, Pellon backing and natural plant dyes Exhibited at: Textural Space exhibition, Surrey Institute of Art & Design, 27 Apr - 23 Jun 2001.

Google Earth 6.0. 2008. Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011, <http://www.google.com/earth/index.html >.

Gorman, P 2001, The look: adventures in pop & rock fashion, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London.

Gough, P 2017, What makes art good or bad?, video recording, Youtube, viewed 17 July 2017, 
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNQVe4qgtx8>.

Le Corbusier, c. 1950-1954, Notre-Dame du Haut, exterior, Ronchamp, France, viewed 12 January 2012, Oxford Art Online database. 

Liebovitz, A 2002, Dancers: photographs by Annie Liebovitz, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Melbourne Water 2012, Weekly water report 5 January 2012: Chart view Daily residential water use in Melbourne, Melbourne Water, Victoria, viewed 12 January 2012, <http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/water_storages/report>.

Mojang 2009, Minecraft, video game, Xbox 360, Mojang, Sweden.

Nefertari with Isis, n.d. photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankh_isis_nefertari.jpg>.

Sallowsky, M 2006, RMIT buildings - Brunswick campus, digital image, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 12 January 2012, <http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=218ujxd8tspl1>.

Turner, JMW 1812, Snow storm: Hannibal and army crossing the alps, Oil on canvas, 145×2360 mm, Turner Collection, Tate Gallery, Britain.

Ubisoft Entertainment 2012, Assassins creed III, computer program, Ubisoft Australia.

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