Job Satisfaction in College Teachers: A Survey Based Study of GovernmentColleges of Hyderabad, Pakistan
Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Shafi M
Institute of Business Administration
University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Tel: +92 22 921 3305
E-mail:[email protected], [email protected]
Received April 02, 2016; Accepted April 28, 2016; Published May 03, 2016
Citation: Shafi M (2016) Job Satisfaction in College Teachers: A Survey Based Study of Government Colleges of Hyderabad, Pakistan. J Hotel Bus Manage 5: 126. doi:10.4172/2169-0286.1000126
Copyright: © 2016 Shafi M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Background and Objective: The profession of teaching is one of most stressful profession in all over the world. The aim of current study was to examine the job satisfaction of teachers of Government Colleges. Methodology: The descriptive type of research was adopted and the data was collected using questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. 231 teachers out of 576 teachers were randomly selected and were given predesigned questionnaire. Meanwhile, face-to-face interviews were conducted from few teachers of each College in-order to assess the level of job satisfaction and root causes of dissatisfaction among the college teachers. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study indicates that due to stumpy salary and lack of various facilities in colleges, 52.38% of teachers were dissatisfied whereas only 29.78% senior teachers were found satisfied with job. During interviews, some new factors were observed to be affecting the job satisfaction in college teaching staff. Job satisfaction among male and female teachers have a high degree of positive correlation and there is also a positive correlation between job satisfaction and length of service. Based on the findings of the results, the present study suggests some modification in the existing policies leading to improvement of satisfaction level.
Job satisfaction; Government colleges; Teachers; Job dissatisfaction
The teaching is one of most respectable profession and plays a vital role in development of societies. The teachers help students to acquire knowledge, information for their development and to shoulder the responsibility of taking the nation towards development, therefore the teachers are considered as the pillars of the society . The need of every teacher is independence, recognition, security and new experience. Needs are important for everyone, if the needs of teachers are not met, the unrest and dissatisfaction among teachers is increased which is very unhealthy for not only teachers but also for students. The job is a vital component of life and also a main source of income . The job of a teacher requires a major part of day and is also a source of contribution in the society; hence the satisfaction of job is necessary for a teacher as well as overall wellbeing .
The relationship of job dissatisfaction and satisfaction depends upon what one expects and obtains from one’s job. The ability to meet the needs of teachers and improve the performance is the job satisfaction and when one is satisfied from the job, the competencies, skills and knowledge is reflected from one’s behavior. Therefore, the job satisfaction is very important for productive activities in the college as well as for the growth of any educational system in the world. A study conducted on effects of gender on organizational commitment and job satisfaction by Suki  disclosed that there is no significance effect on perception of job satisfaction among male and female teachers. However, Kumar and Bhatia  in their study observed that the attitude and job satisfaction in physical education teachers is least affected by marital status, gender, income and minimum qualification. Another study conducted by Zilli and Zahoor  to compare the organizational commitment between male and female teachers of higher education, revealed that the female teaching staff have higher level of organizational commitment as compare to male teaching staff.
A descriptive study conducted by Mehta  to find out the impact of type of organization (Private/Government) on School Teachers, concluded that the level of job satisfaction is affected by the type of organization and the teachers of government sector schools are more satisfied than private . A research on “Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among teachers during times of Burnout for developing and test a model for Burnout and its effect on job satisfaction on organizational commitment” conducted by Nagar  showed that the mean score for female teaching staff is higher than the male in terms of job satisfaction and organizational commitment .
Job satisfaction has been considered as an important subject all over the world as it is necessary for the growth of educational system and development of society in all over the world. In this context, the satisfaction of job is related to meeting the needs and demands of teacher’s in-order to motivate and improve their skills as well as performance. The satisfaction is very important in all aspects of any profession; the occurrence of skills, knowledge and competencies depends upon the satisfaction of behavior of individuals . Therefore, the satisfaction of teachers of any college is needed in their behaviors so that they can perform their duties with commitment, dedication and hard work to provide latest knowledge and information to students for their development . The aim of this study was to examine the level of job satisfaction and investigate the reasons of job stress in teachers of Government Colleges (Male and Female).
The descriptive type of Research was adopted in the present study. The detail of Colleges and Teaching staff was obtained from the Regional Directorate of Colleges, Hyderabad Region. The eight Government Colleges (Male and Female) located in different parts of the city were selected for the study. The respondents of the study were Lecturers, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors, Professors and Principals of Government Colleges in Hyderabad, Sindh. The data was collected using questionnaire and direct interviews. The Questionnaire was prepared on the basis of various factors which influenced the satisfaction of the respondents. The first part of questionnaire consisted of information regarding demographic background like age, sex, level of education, designation, salary, length of service, average hours of work, marital status. The second part of the questionnaire was consisted of various statements to find out the level of job satisfaction and job stress such as working conditions, health conditions, respondents’ facet specific job satisfaction, respondents’ relations with co-workers, work-load, autonomy, opportunities of growth and promotion, job description, working environment, rewards and recognitions.
Total 250 teachers of eight Government Colleges in Hyderabad (four boys and four girl’s colleges) from total population of 576 teachers were selected for the study and were given the predesigned questionnaire. Meanwhile, face to face interviews were conducted from few teachers of each college in-order to assess the level of job satisfaction and rout causes of dissatisfaction among the teachers. Only 231 questionnaires duly filled-in all respect were returned back to the researcher. The study was conducted during the period from August 2014 - August 2015 and the data was analyzed using SPSS-20 and Microsoft Excel.
Results and Discussion
The questionnaire was prepared on the basis of various factors which influence the satisfaction of the teaching staff. The response of Government college teachers and its analysis has been highlighted in Tables 1-6 and Figures 1-7. There are total 21 Government colleges in Hyderabad district, Sindh, Pakistan, from whom 09 (42.85%) are Girls colleges and 12 (57.14%) are Boys colleges.
The demographic profile of Government Colleges has been highlighted in Table 1 and Figure 1.
|Boys/Girls Government Colleges||Number of colleges||Percentage|
|Total Government Colleges in Hyderabad||21||100%|
Table 1: Demographic profile of total colleges in Hyderabad.
The data was collected from four boys colleges and four girls colleges of Hyderabad district and the majority of the respondents were male rather than female. In sample of total 231 respondents, 124 (53.68%) were male respondents whereas the female respondents were only 107 (46.32%). The demographic profile of teaching staff of Government Colleges under study has been highlighted in Table 2 and Figure 2.
Table 2: Demographic profile of respondent teachers under study.
The total strength of teaching staff of four Government Girls Colleges and four Government Colleges under present study is 576 teachers; female teaching staff is 354 and male teaching staff 222. The strength of teaching staff of selected Government Colleges has been highlighted in Table 3 and Figure 3.
|S.No.||Name of College||Total No of teaching staff||Percentage|
|1.||Government Nazreth Girls College, Hyderabad||116||20.14%|
|2.||Government Girls Degree College Qasimabad, Hyderabad||112||19.44%|
|3.||Government Girls Degree College Latifabad No.8, Hyderabad||82||14.24%|
|4.||Government Dr. I.H Zubairi (H) Girls College, Hyderabad||44||7.64%|
|5.||Government City College, Hyderabad (Boys)||35||6.08%|
|6.||Government Boys College Kali Mori, Hyderabad||108||18.75%|
|7.||Government Boys Degree College, Paretabad, Hyderabad||23||3.99%|
|8.||Government Boys Degree College, Qasimabad, Hyderabad||56||9.72%|
Table 3: College wise strength of teaching staff.
All the principals of 4 boys colleges under study responded, 11 professors participated in the study, 17 were associate professor, 57 were assistant professors and 35 lecturers participated from different boys colleges under present study. the total strength of male teaching staff has been highlighted in Figure 4.
All the principals of 4 girls colleges under study responded, 08 professors participated in the study, 16 were associate professor, 39 were assistant professors and 40 lecturers participated from different girls colleges under present study. The majority of the respondents were lecturers. The total strength of female teaching staff has been highlighted in Figure 5.
From total sample, 135 (58.44%) teachers were single whereas 96 (41.56%) respondents were married. The respondents were between the age groups of 25-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years and the 36% of staff were between 25-29 years of age, whereas, the mean age of the respondents was 35 years. 124 respondents were from boys colleges and 107 respondents were from girls colleges. The marital status and age wise distribution of respondents has been highlighted in Table 4.
|Marital status||Age (years)||Frequency||Percentage||Mean±SD|
Table 4: Marital status and age wise distribution of respondents.
It was observed that 32.47% respondents possess 1-5 years job experience, 41.13% teachers possess 6-12 years of experience, 15.58% respondents possess 13-26 years of experience and 10.82% respondents possess more than 26 years’ experience. Hence, the majority of the respondents possess 6-12 years’ experience. The detail of years of experience of respondents has been highlighted in Table 5 and Figure 6.
|Up to 5||75||32.47||11.24±7.71|
|6 to 12||95||41.13|
|13 to 26||36||15.58|
|26 & above||25||10.82|
Table 5: Years of Experience of teaching staff.
The job satisfaction is one of important element of teaching profession; the job satisfaction of Teacher is directly proportional to the performance and effectiveness of the College. From this limited study, it is found that there are varieties of factors which affect teachers’ job satisfaction. These factors include non-availability of accommodation, stumpy salary, working environment, lengthy procedures to follow rules and regulations of the job, and class room activities, behavior and attitude of superiors; freedom for participating in decision making, recognition of the society. The above factors have great effects on the satisfaction level of teachers.
The job satisfactions among male and female teachers have a high degree of positive correlation and there is also a positive correlation between the job satisfaction and length of service among college teaching staff. The teachers should be provided better training methods, restroom facilities and also training to overcome the stress during job. There should be a better relationship with administrative authorities and teaching staff; they should be involved while making any policy decision at higher levels for attaining higher satisfaction from all such aspects of their profession [11,12]. Similarly beneficial prospects (opportunity, team spirit, vacation and bonus) demonstrated more content of teacher’s satisfaction. Those teachers who are satisfied with their jobs, takes interest to teach students with efficiently and effectively [13,14]. Chen  conducted a study in Chinese Middle School Teachers and found that the senior teaching staffs are dissatisfied with their job than younger and less-experienced teachers . Chaturvedi et al.  conducted a study of female teaching staff of various Schools in Bhopal, India and observed that the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior .
The result of the study indicates that 52.38% of the teachers working in the colleges of Hyderabad were not satisfied with their jobs. The study further indicates that stumpy salary and lack of facilities in the College are also main factors that lead to job dissatisfaction in the teaching staff. The working environment and designation also plays an important role in job satisfaction, however the mean job satisfaction score among the teaching staff still remained low. It was further observed that the teachers especially lecturers were not satisfied with their job due to stumpy salary package and non-availability government accommodation as according to them the salary is not enough to cover daily expenses such as rent of houses, transportation daily household expenses etc. This indicates that respondents felt that their salaries cannot make it more at par with the present economic condition. Thus, salaries could make them more satisfied with their job.
The lecturers and Assistant Professors were dissatisfied with the factor of stumpy salary and promotion. Due to long seniority list, they have to wait a long time for their turn to come. Delay in promotion and stumpy salary are serious issues which needs to be taken up for consideration at higher level. 29.87% senior teachers were satisfied from their jobs and no job stress was observed at all. However, during interview, it was observed that disrespect of seniors, jealousy are also common issues especially in female teaching staff which leads to job dissatisfaction. Due to personal life imbalance/issues in female teaching staff, their performance was being affected. All the teaching staff was working on permanent basis. The results indicates that 37 respondents were highly satisfied and 32 respondents were satisfied from their jobs, however, 41 respondents were neutral. The results further indicates that 82 respondents were dissatisfied and 39 respondents were highly dissatisfied from their jobs due to certain factors. The results of overall level of job satisfaction of teachers along-with mean and standard deviation has been highlighted in Table 6 and Figure 7.
|Responses||No of Respondents||Percentage||Mean ± SD|
|Highly Dissatisfied||39||16.88||3.4 ±5.7|
Table 6: Overall level of teacher's satisfaction.
As per international standards the average pupil-teacher ratio is 40:1 . Whereas, during interview with some Principals of the Colleges, it was observed that the teaching staff is appointed/posted by the higher authorities of Education and Literacy Department and there is lack of proper planning for pupil-teacher ratio. Either teaching staff is posted in excess or there is shortage of teaching staff in colleges in particular subject(s). Moreover the need of every college is not considered while transfer/posting of any teacher. Consequently the performance of teachers is affected on one hand and the quality of education is also affected on the other hand which leads to dissatisfaction among teaching staff.
The job satisfaction is one of important element of teaching profession, the job satisfaction of Teacher is directly proportional to the performance of and effectiveness of College; it is found that there are varieties of factors which affect teachers’ job satisfaction. These factors include non-availability of trainings/workshops to face the stress during job, lack of facilities, financial aspects, behavior and attitude of superiors, subordinates, students, freedom for participating in decision making, recognition of the society etc. The level of job satisfaction in college teachers is greatly affected by above factors. The job satisfactions among male and female teachers have a high degree of positive correlation and there is also a positive correlation between job satisfaction and length of service among teaching staff of colleges .
Conclusion and Recommendation
Due to stumpy salary, delay in promotion, non-availability of accommodation, lack of appropriate facilities in the colleges and work life imbalance almost half of the teaching staff was dissatisfied with their jobs. Improper planning for appointment/posting of teaching staff was also found as a vital issue in the present study. Considering the results of the study, it is proposed that the pay and promotion policy should be reviewed and government accommodation with sufficient facilities should be provided to the teaching staff in-order to motivate them to work with more attention, dedication, hard work and commitment in the best academic interest.
The college teaching staff should be provided sufficient trainings to update their knowledge improve their performance and face the challenges and stress during job. The teaching staff should also be provided latest trainings for improvement of their performance and there should also be a better relationship with administrative authorities; the teaching staff may also be given sufficient freedom for decision making in their teachings for attaining higher satisfaction level. The workshops may also be organized from time to time in-order to update the knowledge of teaching staff, acquire latest teaching techniques and also to make work life balance. Moreover, the higher authorities should also focus to adopt the international standards in appointment/ posting of teaching staff and should also maintain the pupil-teacher ratio so that the workload of teaching staff should be maintained and the quality education should be provided to the students.
Based on the findings of the results, it is further recommended that the teaching staff should be appointed on merit basis according to the knowledge/expertise/experience of individuals in the best interest of education. It is further recommended that the students should also be granted admissions only on merit basis, as the talented students always focus on their studies which will reduce the work-load of teachers and the academic activities of the college will be carried out smoothly. It is also suggested that the workshops may be conducted to reduce the stress among teaching staff from time to time.
The class size should be reduced and the work load should be equally divided. It is further recommended that weekly meetings of college administration and teaching staff should be convened for discussion of routine problems/issues and their solutions for better performance of the college and staff.
Limitation of the Study
Job satisfaction is a very vital concern in every field, so enormous area can be studied for such type of research. The present study is limited to only one district; the same can be extended to overall province/country. Research on job satisfaction can be completed by not only taking data from the college teachers but also taking information from university teachers as well as from the employees of other sectors/ departments.
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Figure 6: Years of experience of teaching staff.
Figure 7: Overall level of teacher's satisfaction.
Figure 1: Demographic profile of total government colleges in Hyderabad.
Figure 2: Demographic profile of respondent teachers under study.
Figure 3: College wise strength of teaching staff.
Figure 4: Demographic profile of government boys colleges with teaching faculty.
Figure 5: Demographic profile of government girls colleges with teaching faculty.
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The present study was conducted to investigate a comparative study of job satisfaction in public and private school teachers. ‘Job satisfaction’ refers to the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction. Negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction. Researches support that teacher's job satisfaction has been found one of the very important variable related to positive teaching behavior toward their job. There has also been considerable interest in the complex relationship between an individual's job satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of his or her life. It was hypothesized that a comparative study of job satisfaction in public and private school teachers. To test this hypothesis the researcher conducted this study to investigate the sense of teacher's job satisfaction. For this purpose the researcher developed a questionnaire of 25 items and 5 options. A sample of 150 public and private school teachers was conveniently selected for the study. Data analysis was conducted through ‘t-test’ and ‘ANOVA’ Which shoed that there is no significance difference between teacher's job satisfaction in public and private schools.