Read this essay to learn about Green Revolution. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Subject Matter of Green Revolution 2. Features of Green Revolution 3. Effects 4. Limitations.
Essay # Subject Matter of Green Revolution:
Since 1966-67, Indian agriculture had undergone a sea-change, both in the qualitative and quantitative ways. The high-yielding variety of seeds (popularly known as H.Y.V.) invented by Dr. Norman Borlaug, were introduced in such a way that entire stagnant agriculture came to the juncture of a massive overhauling.
Through the introduction of shorter H.Y.V. wheat seeds of Mexico, rice seeds like Taichung and I.R. varieties from Philippines, seeds of Green Revolution were sown in India. A round-up of agricultural development in this period revealed that poor growth rate in production and large amount of foreign exchange drainage for necessary imports were weighing heavily against the rapid change of the agricultural scenario.
To overcome these major handicaps, the Government of India had promulgated a ‘new strategy’ and sought collaboration from the International Rice Research Institute, Rockefeller Foundation and several other organizations. This new strategy tried a co-ordination of the suggestions from heterogenous agencies.
They had made several recommendations:
1. Introduction of H.Y.V. seeds.
2. New measure to exploit water resources.
3. Enhancement and overhauling of existing irrigation potential.
4. Increasing the intensity of farming and introduction of multiple cropping.
5. Creation of additional capacity to produce fertilizer, pesticides and insecticides.
6. Adaptation of high technology and its flow towards remote areas.
Following the adaptation of these new measures, manifold improvements have taken place. Along with agricultural development, due stress was given to the grave related problem—population control. As a result, population growth rate came down to 2.1% per annum.
During the same period, food-grain production increased at a faster rate. Soon, agricultural production outpaced the population growth and India became self-sufficient in food-grain production. This achievement helped India to save precious foreign currency as food imports from USA under PL-480 came to halt.
Essay # Features of Green Revolution:
After the completion of two consecutive Plans, India was still reeling under severe food shortage. Policy-makers and planners were forced to review the outcome of increasing pace of industrialization without any substantial development of agriculture.
Dilly-dalling over the years in this issue had already hampered the agricultural development. But grain imports from other countries and related conditions and cost forced the planners to make a serious review of agricultural conditions.
Without having any other viable alternative, a major thrust was given on the introduction of H.Y.V. seeds and improvement of irrigation facilities. Several new varieties of H.Y.V. were released. Among these notable were Larma Rojo, Sonora 64, Kalyan Sona, Malabika and Sonalika.
Later on, more resistant varieties like Safed Larma and Choti larma were released. With more Nitrogen-fixing capacity Arjun, Janak and Sherba varieties were introduced for semi-arid tracts of Western India.
After the introduction and success of wheat seeds, rice seeds programme received priority. Keeping geographical and economic limitations in mind, special variety of rice seeds were introduced. These were Taichung, Native, I.R.-8, I.R.-16 Jaya, Padma, Ratna and Vijoya.
Certainly the yield per hectare increased considerably but, regarding quality, some reservations came to surface. Subsequently H.Y.V. maize seeds like Ganga-101, Ranjit, Deccan, Safed-2 were introduced. In the case of jowar, Kishan varieties were introduced.
Following the introduction of H.Y.V. seeds, productivity rate certainly increased but distributional lacuna and lack of co-ordination marred the success to a limit. This much-talked Green Revolution proved to be a grand success in the North-Western part of India, comprising of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and some pockets of Uttar Pradesh.
It is quite clear that only in the irrigated wheat tracts, these H.Y.V. seeds responded well. But in the case of rice cultivation, H.Y.V. Rice seeds failed to produce desired results. It was, however, partially successful in boro cultivation. A good number of reasons were responsible for the success of Green Revolution in North- West India.
1. Sunny, bright daylight throughout the season provided longer growing period.
2. Historically, Punjab and Haryana were well-endowed with the best irrigation systems in the country.
3. Amalgamation of land holdings gave rise to larger plots conducive for wheat cultivation.
4. Several land reform measures prevented absentee landlordism.
5. Availability of very hard-working cheap labour.
6. Zealous uprooted Punjabi people from erstwhile West Pakistan settled en masse and invested massive capital for desired result.
7. Proper and generous assistance from both state and central governments.
Essay # Effects of Green Revolution:
Following the initiation of Green Revolution, certain fundamental changes has taken place in Indian agriculture.
1. Agriculture productivity rate increased considerably and India attained self-reliance in her food-production.
2. For the first time, agricultural machines were used at a large scale.
3. An affluent group of cultivators emerged with considerable political and social power.
4. Agriculture became a high-earning occupation.
Essay # Limitations of Green Revolution:
Despite significant growth in the production of food-grains, the so-called Green Revolution had very little impact on the overall production of food-grains in India. This conclusion was supported by a number of studies.
The output of several studies are:
1. K. Griffin (1974):
There has been no significant difference in the rate of growth of agricultural production before or after the onset of Green Revolution.
2. T. N. Srinivasan (1972):
Essentially a ‘wheat revolution’ with no significant change in the rate of growth of food production other than wheat.
3. Hanumantha Rao (1974):
Between 27% and 41 % of additional output between 1964- 65 and 1970-71 can be contributed to Green Revolution.
4. D. K. Desai (1972):
Returns obtained by farmers using new technology were not significantly higher than those obtained by non-users.
So, the factors responsible for limited success of Green Revolution may be grouped in several classes. Some of these are geographical and others are socio-economic.
The direct reasons may be summed up as follows:
1. The success of H.Y.V. seeds were only in the case of wheat. Unfortunately wheat constitutes only a fraction of total food-grain output in India.
2. The success of H.Y.V. depends upon the input of recommended dosages. But due to poverty and ignorance, cultivators became unable to use the dosages properly.
3. Only selected areas were earmarked for this experiment. Thus success was naturally partial.
4. Variability and unpredictable nature of monsoon and low irrigation facilities in agriculture restricted the success of Green Revolution in India.
The Green Revolution Essay
989 Words4 Pages
Broad Topic: The Green Revolution
Narrowed Topic: Pesticides and the Green Revolution: The impact on the environment and counter- measures. The green revolution technology phenomenon started in Mexico over sixty years ago. The technology which is still relevant today has, forever changed the way agriculture is conducted worldwide. According to Wilson (2005), green revolution technology “involved using high-yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds, pesticides and fertilizers in addition to irrigation” (para. 4). The technology was used mainly to boost the production of wheat and rice, so that developing countries could keep up with the growing demand of their rising population. The process has led to significant increase in…show more content…
One of the most worrying concerns for farmers associated with green revolution farming is probably the health risk, associated with prolonged exposure to pesticides. Wilson (2005) cited Wilson and Tisdell (2001), calls our readers’ attention to the fact that “insecticides are the most frequently used pesticides and are known to be toxic to humans, wildlife and the environment” (para.6). Toxic residue adds up over the years and can lead to long term and short term, chronic illnesses and life long complications and is even known to cause death. Furthermore, farmers who get ill from exposure to pesticides often suffer from, headaches, skin rashes, nausea, twitching of muscles, chest pains and a host of other illnesses. This has led to various stakeholders amplifying the need, for a new approach to pesticides usage. Shaebecoff (1983) highlighted the challenges of enforcing safety regulations in regards to the use and banning of pesticides, while Tillman (1998) called for the need of high-intensity agriculture with fewer environmental costs. However, established pesticide regulatory levels for intentional and unintentional presence of pesticides, are often not enforce, and where there are enforcement, fines for breaches are usually negligible. Regulations or not, it is imperative that farmers take some ownership of their own health, and employ every precautionary