I 130 Cover Letter Sample For Sibling Jealousy

Abstract

Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite of hypothesized immediate (early-life body mass, telomere length, and survival) and delayed (adult reproductive potential and lifespan) costs of sibling rivalry for offspring of differing competitive ability in Seychelles warblers, where most offspring are raised singly and hence competitor success can be compared to a competition-free scenario. Compared to those raised alone, all competing nestlings had lower body mass and weaker competitors experienced reduced survival. However, the stronger competitors appeared to have longer adult breeding tenures and lifespan than those raised alone. We propose that comparisons with competition-free groups, as well as detailed fitness measures across entire lifetimes, are needed to understand the evolution of sibling rivalry and thus individual reproductive strategy in wild systems.

INTRODUCTION

When coexisting offspring are raised in a joint “nursery” such as in the multiple-offspring broods or litters of many vertebrates (Mock and Parker 1997), conflict between offspring for limited parental resources results in sibling rivalry (Trivers 1974; Parker et al. 2002a). Such sibling rivalry is expected to incur costs according to the degree to which the competitors’ evolutionary interests are aligned; ultimately, this depends on the direct fitness benefit of acquiring resources and the indirect fitness cost of denying them to siblings (Parker 1989).

Many studies have aimed to determine the costs of sibling rivalry for offspring (reviewed in Shaanker et al. 1988; Hudson and Trillmich 2008). When the relationship between per-capita parental investment and number of competing offspring is less than 1, offspring experience a reduction in parental resources. For each offspring, the extent of this resource-based cost depends on its relative competitive ability and the number of competitors. Although parents may have some capacity to increase overall provisioning to larger numbers of young (Hegner and Wingfield 1987), evidence for decreasing per-capita investment with increasing brood size is widespread (Mock and Forbes 1995). Reduced food intake in early life may impair a suite of physiological components (e.g., growth rates: Stamps and Tanaka 1981, body size and mass: Emlen et al. 1991, immunocompetence: Saino et al. 1997), which can in turn reduce survival to adulthood (Magrath 1991; Christe et al. 1998; Mock et al. 2009). Hence, by consuming a portion of available resources, coexisting offspring inflict a resource-based cost on each other, which may or may not be symmetrical across the brood (see below).

A second type of sibling rivalry cost concerns the behavioral adaptations that evolve as a consequence of sibling rivalry, which can be elaborate and diverse across species—ranging from nonphysical behavioral contests to obligate siblicide (Mock and Parker 1997). Sibling rivalry may be costly in terms of the production, maintenance, and expression of such traits (Godfray 1995). For example, behavioral (begging and jostling for optimal position) and physiological (growth strategies and morphological signals) adaptations to competition are found in a broad range of taxa (Manser and Avey 2000; Kilner 2001; Smiseth and Moore 2002). The energetic costs of maintaining rivalry traits, independent of parental resource depletion, may be an important component of sibling rivalry. Such traits are expected to be costly (MacNair and Parker 1979) and there is some empirical evidence for energetic costs to avian nestling begging (Kilner 2001; Neuenschwander et al. 2003). However, the magnitude of these costs appears generally limited (Smiseth and Parker 2008; reviewed in Chappell and Bachman 2002) and perhaps context-dependent (e.g., based on environmental conditions; Leech and Leonard 1996).

A third, less studied consequence of sibling rivalry is the potential for delayed costs in terms of later-life performance. If competition in early life causes suboptimal phenotypic development, it is possible that individuals become more susceptible to early mortality either through premature ageing (Nettle et al. 2015) or reduced ability to acquire resources (Merilä and Svensson 1997). Poor early-life development may also affect an individual’s ability to compete for reproduction (Verhulst et al. 1997) and this may be exacerbated if competing offspring influence the later-life reproductive potential of rivals after independence (Ekman et al. 2002; West et al. 2002; Tarwater 2012). However, very few studies have tested for such delayed costs, presumably due to the difficulty of monitoring individuals across their lifespan.

If competitive ability varies within the brood, sibling rivalry costs may be asymmetric. Competitive asymmetry typically arises through age or size differences (Mock and Forbes 1995) resulting from asynchronous birth (Drummond et al. 1986; Bonisoli-Alquati et al. 2011) or differences in growth induced by prenatal allocation of maternal resources (Einum and Fleming 1999; Royle et al. 2001). Competitor hierarchies and asymmetric competitive ability can have pronounced effects on the within-brood distribution of costs (Parker et al. 2002b), and empirical studies often suggest that the strongest competitors in a brood suffer no net cost of sibling rivalry (Cook et al. 2000; Sykes et al. 2007; Roulin and Dreiss 2012). Due to the difficulty of determining rivalry costs for the most competitive individuals (see below), the validity of this latter argument remains unclear.

Despite extensive research into sibling rivalry, there remain multiple key avenues for future research. Perhaps most importantly, many studies to date have considered broods that contain multiple offspring, where sibling rivalry will always be expected (e.g., Smale et al. 1995; Michaud and Leonard 2000, but see Emms and Verbeek 1991; Drummond et al 2011; López‐Jiménez et al. 2015).Within a brood, each individual is prenatally provisioned to deal with an expected level of competition (e.g., Harper 1986) in terms of developing the necessary morphological and behavioral platforms to express postnatal competitive traits. For individual offspring, the cost of experimentally varying the level of competition (e.g., by brood-size manipulations) will depend on the level of competition the offspring is equipped to encounter, because changing the postnatal level of competition cannot reverse the costs (or benefits) of such prenatal provisioning by parents. Thus, although previous studies have facilitated our understanding of variation in sibling rivalry, they may over or underestimate the true costs of competition, which might be better resolved by comparing competing individuals to noncompeting individuals. Importantly, a naturally occurring competition-free comparison group would best enable us to determine whether even the strongest competitors in a brood suffer rivalry costs.

In addition to the rarity of studies comparing competing and noncompeting individuals, few studies have considered competition beyond the earliest stage of dependence (but see Arroyo et al. 2002; Ekman et al. 2002; Drummond et al. 2011; Tarwater 2012). In particular, extended sibling rivalry may play an important role in social species with delayed offspring dispersal (Mock and Parker 1997); ignoring this may limit our understanding of the ultimate fitness consequences of sibling rivalry. Additionally, sibling rivalry in early life may produce delayed or ongoing costs after offspring have dispersed and no longer interact, which could affect downstream life span or reproductive performance (Spear and Nur 1994). Our knowledge about delayed sibling rivalry costs in wild systems is limited to a few studies in seabirds (Drummond et al. 2011; Müller et al. 2011; Carmona-Isunza et al. 2013)—information from a broader array of taxa is needed to infer when and how early-life rivalry has lifelong effects (Drummond et al. 2011).

The Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis provides a useful system in which to improve our understanding of the lifelong costs of sibling rivalry, taking into account both prenatal priming and delayed rivalry costs outlined above. This insectivorous passerine, which is endemic to the Seychelles (Safford and Hawkins 2013), has been intensively studied on Cousin Island and provides a highly tractable system in which to explore some of the gaps in our current understanding of sibling rivalry. Modal brood size on the island is 1 but a small proportion of nests (13%) contain 2 nestlings (Komdeur 1994; Richardson et al. 2001). The fact that the majority of offspring therefore never experience competition from a coexisting nestmate and selection driving the evolution or “priming” of traits designed to manipulate competitive ability is likely to be relatively weak, we can effectively test the effect of sibling rivalry against a competition-free comparison group. Moreover, following the ca. 17-day nestling period, the Seychelles warbler has an extensive period of postfledging care (3 months, Komdeur 1991




  1. 01-07-2009, 09:43 PM#1
    Join Date
    Dec 2008
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    Cover letters I-130 and I-485

    Hello,

    Tying up loose ends, for about a week now

    So here are my cover letters for the I-130 and the I-485 (filed together) I decided to make 2 separate cover letters since i wouldn't want either form to end up separated without a cover letter.

    So here goes

    <ALIEN NAME AND ADDRESS>
    <TODAY'S DATE>

    NATURE OF THE SUBMISSION: I-130 ORIGINAL SUBMISSION

    TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:

    Dear USCIS,

    Enclosed please find form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative, and the supporting documents. The petition is filed by USC, a USC on behalf of ALIEN, a citizen of Belgium.

    Concurrently with this I-130, ALIEN and USC have filed form I-485 and all the supporting documents.

    Contents of I-130 package:

     Check
     I-130 petition filed by USC, petitioner on behalf of ALIEN, beneficiary.
     Copy of Birth Certificate of USC.
     Copy and certified translation of Birth Certificate of ALIEN.
     Copy of Marriage Certificate
     Form G-325a completed by USC
     Passport type picture of USC
     Form G-325a Completed by ALIEN.
     Passport type Picture of ALIEN
     Proof of Bona Fide Marriage
    o Affidavit of Bona Fide Marriage by mother of USC.
    o Affidavit of Bona Fide Marriage by mother of USC.
    o Selection of Pictures that document relationship and marriage
    o Photocopies of wedding cards and gift receipts



    Thank you for your time and patience,

    Kind regards,

    Signature ALIEN Signature USC

    <ALIEN NAME><USC NAME>

    Date and Address
    ____________________________________________________________ ____________
    <ALIEN NAME AND ADDRESS>
    <TODAY'S DATE>

    NATURE OF THE SUBMISSION: I-485 ORIGINAL SUBMISSION

    TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:

    Dear USCIS,

    Enclosed please find form I-485 and the supporting documents. The form is filed by Belgian citizen ALIEN, whose eligibility is based on his immediate relative (spouse), USC, a USC.
    Their marriage took place on 12/17/2008 and an I-130, petition for alien relative, is filed concurrently with this I-485.

    Contents of I-485 package:

     Form I-485 Application To Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status
     Copy of Birth Certificate and Certified Translation Alien
     Copy of Passport Alien
     Copy of I-94 front and back
     Copy of Marriage Certificate
     Two passport type photos of Alien
     Form G-325A by Alien
     Form I-864, Affidavit of Support and Supporting documents
    o Form I-864a, Contract between Sponsor and Household Member completed by USC mother
    o Form I-864a, Contract between Sponsor and Household Member completed by USC mother
    o Proof of common household of USC and USC mother and father
    o US Tax Return forms of the three most recent tax years of mother and father of USC
    o Paystubs for the last 6 months by USC mother
    o Paystubs for the last 6 months by USC father
    o US Tax Return forms of the three most recent tax years of mother and father of USC
     Form I-693 Medical Examination
     Form I-131, Application for Travel Document
    o Copy of Passport ALIEN
    o Copy and Translation of Birth Certificate ALIEN
    o Two passport type photos of Alien
     Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization
    o Copy of Passport ALIEN
    o Copy I-94 front and back
    o Two passport type photos of Alien


    Thank you for your time and patience,

    Kind regards,

    <Signature Alien> <Signature USC>

    <ALIEN NAME><USC NAME>

    Date and Address
    ____________________________________________________________ _____


    Does this look up to standard? I read about a USCIS standard form for these cover letters but i couldn't find it on their website.

    thx,

    W
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